Sounds like you are pretty well versed with video so you may want to look deeper into the can of worms...
When faced with a problem like this I usually reach for the GraphStudioNext program to diagnose the formats. You need the 32-bit version as the Spike2 data capture uses this. You can find it at:https://www.videohelp.com/software/GraphStudio
The latest version is 0.7.1.61 dated Decemeber 2020.
This is not the easiest program in the world to use as it does require you to have a basic understanding of DirectShow and is intended for programmers.
Try adding the camera and the Enhanced Video renderer to the graph and then see if you can get them to connect. If you can, note the format settings and attempt to set the same values in S2video. However, we only allow control over general format and screen resolution...
If you hit the same problems with this program as s2video there is little chance we can do anything to help as we use much the same underlying mechanisms to connect components. If you can get it to connect, we may be able to get s2video to work, but we would probably need to have access to the camera and associated kit and there is no guarantee of success. Also any changes would be to the latest Spike2 version.
The error message you mentioned "Error Message 0x80040217 no combination of intermediate filters..." means that DirectShow was asked to connect two components and it was unable to find a way to convert the stream format from one compatible with the source to one compatible with the destination. The hueristic used to connect is not published and is likely to be complex. The major change we made was to make the connections in much smaller steps, which made the system much more likely to succeed (probably by hugely reducing the search space for matching formats).
If you can find a particular path that works, we can sometimes detect the special case and help the connection by adding intermediate components by hand so as to force the system to take a particular connection route.
Other than using a different camera, I do not know what else to suggest.